On Thoreau’s Walden

What is the use of a house if you haven’t got a tolerable planet to put it on?“

—  Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau spent just over two years at Walden pond.  He built a small home of less than 200 square feet, rose early every morning to enjoy the nature surrounding him, whether sitting in his cabin looking out the window into the wilds or hiking in the woods taking notes as a naturalist would.  He wrote his famous and enduring classic “Walden” as a consequence of this experience.  The quote above was written by Thoreau to Harrison Blake in May of 1860.

Ken Burns Presents “Walden”, A Ewers Brothers Production

In a planet that is quickly becoming “intolerable” through the exploitation of our natural resources by the fossil fuel industry, the military industrial complex and so many other profiteers playing on fear and hate wherever it can be found, Thoreau’s comment seems truer than ever before.

How can a structure protect us if the change we need in these tragic times is not within ourselves?  Over 91% of the US population owns or has access to a car, and will own on average over nine cars in a lifetime.  The price of a car averages $40,000 in 2021 and this is only the beginning.  Gas, maintenance, insurance, and so on, make this figure for car ownership even higher.  This is not to mention all the things one can haul home in a car from the store on Black Friday and the other 364 days of the year.  Each individual fuels the planet’s destruction by choices made like these.

Houses have become even bigger than ever before.  One room off the kitchen where the family and guests will congregate for society, a bathroom for everyone, rooms for study, games, videos, rooms for sleeping, rooms for clothes and dining, formal and informal, kitchen and storage and outdoor living with screens and barbecues all “living areas” of various sorts for “high end” living.  But what of the body and soul that inhabit these rooms, most larger than Thoreau’s one room cabin in Walden woods?

What do we do when we have spare time from “getting a living”?  What do we do for our development; and where do we plan on arriving?  What are we shopping for; and where will it all end if we don’t care for the vessel that is driving this car we call planet earth?  No four walls will protect us from our own complicity.

We can’t let perfection get in the way of our journey to a better more sustainable and kinder world.  By giving ourselves permission to fail sometimes, we learn.  We are all creatures of habit and it takes a little time to make the changes, but we must begin.  A protester’s sign in the video above read: “The climate is CHANGING why aren’t we?” And so we must.

In a global economy, we are all susceptible to decisions made across the planet in every place at every doorstep.  We are all individually responsible for the decisions we make, every step we take, at every moment.  We all pollute just by being born into this world; but we can make our impact much lighter by considering the waste in our lives, downsizing and making wiser choices, choices that coincide with a kinder way of living, thoughtfully, as Thoreau lived.  

We give thanks in our actions; and each action begins with a thought.

With love and gratitiude for this beautiful planet, with respect for the wilderness areas that we need so much, for our bodies and our souls, we may yet make the changes needed.

“In wildness is the preservation of the world.”

Henry David Thoreau

Arrowhead Aquifers and the Hill of Three Waters

We could speak of the beauty, the wild, the spirit of something greater than ourselves, the sustenance we all gain from these masterpieces.  Such is the Arrowhead of Minnesota

What is the true source of three of the greatest water systems of North America, that of the Rainy River, Lake Superior drainage basin, and Mississippi River? Have underground aquifers and waterways in the Arrowhead been mapped such that we can understand the full scope of these resources?


Water cascades in great quantity from the “big stoney” to Lake Superior and parts unknown …

Legend has it that various tribes of the Ojibwe were pressed to defend their forests from an invasion of Sioux at one point. Since the buffalo had not returned to their territory as expected, the Sioux were in search of the sustenance in lands claimed by the Ojibwe, abundant and fruitful, forested wetlands of what is now known as Northern Minnesota. Since the Sioux were fierce and savvy warriors and could defeat the small tribes of Ojibwe individually throughout the land, leaders decided to unite. They met to decide their strategy on the “hill of three waters”… a unique quirk in geography, one mile north of present day Hibbing where water falling at this precise point can divide and flow in three directions, one to the Gulf of Mexico, one through the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, and the last to Hudson Bay.

Chiefs of the Ojibwe traveled from Canada, Lake of the Woods, and Nett Lake following water routes in the Big Fork River and Shannon River to unite with other leaders at the “hill”. Leaders of those Ojibwe in the Big Sandy Lake area and Mille Lacs Lake took waters north on the Mississippi and Prairie Rivers to Day Lake and then up Day Brook to the “hill”. Chiefs from Wisconsin, Fond du Lac, and Lake Superior joined their brothers on the “hill of three waters” by taking the St Louis River and Penobscot Creek. Unified, they eventually defeated the Sioux and regained their territory.

Along the Laurentian Divide where the “hill of three waters” is located, white settlers believed that the direction of flow was directly North and South. Native Americans knew long ago that this was not the case throughout the divide, and that water flowed to the river basins of Lake Superior, Rainy River as well as the Mississippi River, particularly at this point, where the Hull Rust Mine is located now. As a result of mining and pollution emerging in unexpected areas, we have learned that unusual geological formations exist in northeastern Minnesota that guarantee a complicated and diverse environment not easily understood.

For instance, portions of the South Kawishiwi River Intrusion and of the Partridge River Intrusion can be found underground at the same Babbitt location in and around mining facilities. Therefore, underground water in parts of Babbitt flow not only into the Partridge River watershed but also into the Rainy River watershed, which shares water with BWCAW. This is complicated even further by overlying and sometimes interconnecting aquifers – surficial and buried, contained and uncontained within varying compositions. Contained aquifers can potentially discharge water a hundred miles more or less from the recharge area or site of pollution. Groundwater and surface water frequently diverge in this area, and so more knowledge is needed concerning Minnesota’s groundwater geology before we can truly begin to understand the consequences of our actions regarding mining of any kind.

Wetlands abound in the “stoney”, along with thousands of flora and fauna, many rare and uncommon. There are orchard orioles, killdeer, snow geese, loons, woodcocks, purple finch, mink, great blue heron, broad-winged hawks, eagles, partridge, beaver, wolves, moose, bear, Canadian lynx, coyotes, blue bills, mallards, night hawks, snowy owls, white-throated sparrows, deer, blueberries, bearberry, rock ferns, caribou moss, and so many other species of plants and animals. What is the potential harm to these populations if the fragile balance of this ecosystem is destroyed, an ecosystem so interconnected with the health of its waters?

Do we sell or do we protect? This is what this decision concerning Polymet Copper Mining comes down to, essentially. There are no real guarantees that Polymet will be around to pay for clean-up once the mine closes and the money runs out of state; and we will never be able to undo the damage of their intrusion into these hydrological treasure troves, a literal mother lode for our planet’s fresh water. Have we already done irreversible damage by allowing almost 2,000 bore holes for copper mining prospectors near the BWCAW?

Groundwater in the area naturally seeps into holes drilled or pits dug in the area. As a consequence, while the mine is in operation, Polymet will continuously discharge water from mining pits and tailings basins to extract the ore. Colby Lake will serve as a source of supplementation and discharge, and widespread discharges will occur in the form of untreated, contaminated water along with altered (treated) water at both sites into the Partridge River, Embarrass River watersheds and the entire St Louis River watershed. These are the knowns.

Since aquifers recharge normally on high ground and discharge in low lying areas, the affected aquifers and water bodies will essentially be mined, as rock is extracted in the Laurentian highlands, instead of recharging (as nature would allow). Loss of pressure, as a consequence, in confined aquifers (artesians) could have devastating and far-reaching consequences; and, of course, we cannot truly know how many wetlands will be lost due to drawdown of the water table and the cumulative effects of long term contamination above and below ground.

Once the mine is closed, the threat to vital fresh water resources would continue, most likely into perpetuity and, therefore, maintenance at an estimated cost of at least $6,000,000 annually. The actual costs will, more than likely, be far greater. In a myopic view alone, what of inflation and the logistics of changing political will and financial realities? How long will water continue to seep into and from the bedrock of the Laurentian Divide contacting waste rock in the mine pits as well as contaminated water in the tailings basins? Do we even know how much water is involved? Can we know?

Ongoing treatment, passive or aggressive, will never return these waters or this region to its original state. Observe ongoing pollution witnessed from mining in the area already. What financial or political assurances would suffice in a tragedy of the scale that sulfide mining would unleash?

From limited hydrological information available to date concerning underground flowage for these vast bedrock formations in the Arrowhead, it seems that the calculations Polymet has made are insufficient to describe the scope of ecological damage possible in this unique environment, and therefore, the effect on freshwater reserves in the stoney of Lake Superior and Rainy River Basins at the very least. Consider the diversity and interconnectedness of the aquifers in St Louis, Lake and Cook counties, the unpredictability of discharge locations from confined aquifers, the potential of contamination by bore holes traversing aquifers. Due to these and so many unknown factors associated with this complex geological area, how is it possible to predict short term or long term consequences of mining this priceless water table for the extraction of any ore body?

It is likely that water in the area’s confined aquifers could be thousands and possibly millions of years old, the implications of which cannot be ignored for any amount of money. We have waste on this earth that could be recycled without destroying our environment, our home. Have we come to a crossroads in our handling of this planet, an ecosystem that we so dearly need for our survival? Isn’t water more important than any profit we can make from mining? Once understood that we cannot mine our water resources without devastating results, perhaps we will favor sane and ecologically sound solutions to those challenges that engage us?

We could speak of the beauty, the wild, the spirit of something greater than ourselves, the sustenance we all gain from these masterpieces. Such is the Arrowhead of Minnesota. What profit is there if not life itself? It is undeniable that people in the area need jobs … although, who of these long term residents came with the intent to mine this jewel? If given the opportunity to work in a sustainable activity, who would not choose to do so? What kind of opportunities could be created with a mindset that encourages positive long term results over short term gains and financial profiteering? Don’t we owe it to ourselves and life itself to make the effort?

Anita Suzanne Tillemans

originally published

January 31, 2014

Cook County, MN

Minnesota’s harvest supplies 80% of the world’s wild rice.

According to an article entitled September 8, 2018 in the Mille Lacs Messenger by Ralph LaPlant:

“Minnesota Indians, traditionally, have harvested wild rice for centuries. Using a canoe being propelled by a push pole, the rice is brushed into the canoe by two wooden flails. Average yields are 50 pounds per acre. Leading the world in wild rice harvest, Minnesota grows over 80 percent of the world’s supply and Canada the rest.”

There are many stories, much better than I could tell, of the benefits of wild rice. As the original provider of most of this wild harvested grain for the world, Minnesota’s wetlands along the line 3 route are in imminent danger of being destroyed, not only by drought and climate change, but by an avoidable threat, the threat of line 3 and the inevitable oil spills that will result from its operation.

Please contact your congressmen and women, senators, and officials that may appeal to reason. This pipeline should not be allowed to operate in such a sensitive area as this.

White House contact

Minnesota Government contacts

How to contact your elected officials

Wild rice – Minnesota’s contribution to the world

About Wild Rice

Wild Rice – Wikipedia

Winona LaDuke’s Opinion in Yes! Feb 2021

Wild Rice – The Grain of the Great Lakes

State Grain – Wild Rice

Wild Rice Harvest

Enbridge officials plan to start pumping crude through this treasure in October. Are there any words that could describe this abomination?